Glossary beginning with S
Historical places, events, and people not covered by the glossary of "Religious figures, terms and events".
- Second Baron's Warsearch for term
The Second Barons' War (1264-1267) was a rebellion of barons led by Simon de Montfort against Henry III. The cause of conflict was Henry's demands for money for the ninth crusade, to fight campaigns in Wales and France, and money to support his brother's claims to the crown of Sicily. For support the barons demanded political reforms and drew up the Provisions of Oxford, which Henry accepted but later repudiated and ask Louis IX of France to adjudicated. Louis found in Henry's favour and Henry obtained a papal bull in 1261 exempting him from his oath.
The first battle at Lewes was a victory for the barons, which saw Henry defeated and captured, and Prince Edward held hostage. However, the barons quarrelled, Gilbert earl of Gloucester and Roger Mortimer joined the king's side, and Prince Edward escaped. The Battle of Evesham resulted in a defeat for the barons, and de Montfort was killed. However, resistance continued until 1267. Later many of the reforms were granted by Edward I.
- Sher Shah Surisearch for term
Sher Shah Suri (1486 - 1545), "The Lion King", also known as Sher Khan, was the Suri Dynasty. The son of a petty Afghan army chieftain, he left home at an early age and was educated in Jaunpur. Later he went to Bihar where he joined the army of the first Mughal Emperor Babur as a private, rising to become commander of the Mughal Army.
In 1537 he rebelled against Babur's son Humayun, overran Bengal and established a Sur Empire from 1540 until his death in 1545. Humayun eventually managed to re-establish Mughal rule in 1554.Synonyms: Sher Khan
- Stephen Gardinersearch for term
Stephen Gardiner (1483-1555) was secretary to Cardinal Wolsey, Henry VIII chief minister. In this role he was sent in 1528/9 as an ambassador to Pope Clement VII, in Rome, to arrange the divorce of Henry from Catherine of Aragon. Although the mission was unsuccessful he was appointed Henry's principle secretary and bishop of Winchester, which was the richest bishopric in England. He was, however, passed over for the position of Archbishop of Canterbury, in favour of Thomas Cranmer, and was later replaced as Henry's secretary by Thomas Cromwell.
A conservative reformer he promoted the Act of Six Articles which required abide by the main tenets of Roman Catholic doctrine (Henry wanted to be seen as more Catholic than the Pope), and had a hand in the downfall of Thomas Cromwell. However, after Henry died the new regime were more radically Protestant and Gardiner was was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1548 for refusing to carry out the injunctions of Thomas Cranmer.
- Suzerainsearch for term
A feudal lord to whom fealty was due.
Suzerainty is where a overlord allows the subordinate a degree of autonomy to control its foreign relationships.Synonyms: Suzerainty