Glossary beginning with P
Historical places, events, and people not covered by the glossary of "Religious figures, terms and events".
- Philip II of Francesearch for term
King of France 1180-1223.
- Philip III of Francesearch for term
King of France 1270-1285
- Philip IV of Francesearch for term
King of France (1285-1314), and father of Isabella wife of Edward II.
- Philip VI of Francesearch for term
King of France 1328 - 1350.
- Piers Gavestonsearch for term
Piers was the son of a Gascony knight, Arnaud de Gabaston a faithful servant of Edward I, who fought for him in Wales, and becoming a hostage to Alfonso III of Aragon and later to Philip IV of France. Like his father Piers served Edward I becoming a member of the household of the prince of Wales (the later Edward III). In this role he became a close friend of Edward and when Edward became king the other Barons became increasingly hostile to the amount of land and influence that Edward III gave to his favourite. This animosity led to Piers being banished on three occasions, the last time by the Lords Ordainers as a traitor having an evil influence over the king. However, Edward brought Piers back and reinstated him to his lands in January 1312. The leading barons besieged Piers at Scarborough Castle where he surrender to custody of the earl of Pembroke. On his journey south he was captured by the earl of Warwick and taken to Warwick castle. Whilst there he was tried and condemned at the behest of the earl of Lancaster, and executed at Blacklow Hill.
- Provisions of Oxfordsearch for term
1258 reforms of the English government issued by a committee of 24 appointed by the Oxford parliament. Twelve members were selected by the King, and twelve by the barons. Effectively the King was forced to recognized the rights of parliament. Executive power was held by the King and a council of 15, and parliament was to meet three times a year.
The provisions were annulled by the dictum of Kenilworth (1266) following the end of the Second Baron's War.