Glossary beginning with M
Historical places, events, and people not covered by the glossary of "Religious figures, terms and events".
- Magnatesearch for term
A powerful member of the Aristocracy or Church. A person of great wealth and feudal power, in some cases rivalling that of the king.
- Marguerite of Anjousearch for term
Queen Consort of Henry VI of England from 1445 - 1461, and then again after the restoration of Henry VI from 1470-1471. Henry VI had frequent bouts of insanity during which Marguerite ruled England, with Richard of York as Regent. Her animosity toward Richard of York and support for the Duke of Somerset was a major factor in igniting the Wars of the Roses.
After the Lancastrians were defeated at the Battle of Towton, and Henry VI deposed by Edward IV of England, Marguerite went into exile in Scotland. In 1470 she returned and in an alliance with Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick restored Henry VI to the throne. However, the following year the Lancastrian forces were defeated at the Battle of Tewkesbury, Marguerite was captured, her son Edward killed, and Henry later murdered. She was ransomed in 1476 by Louis XI of France, and died at Angers in 1482.
- Mary Isearch for term
Queen of England 1553 - 1558.Synonyms: 'bloody' Mary, Mary Tudor
- Mary IIsearch for term
Queen regnant of England 1689 - 1694.
- Mary, Queen of Scotssearch for term
Mary was the only surviving child of James V of Scotland. She was brought up in France and married Francis II of France, becoming Queen of France when he succeeded to the throne in 1559. When Francis died in 1560 she returned to Scotland, and married her cousin Lord Darnley in 1565, which was unhappy. In 1567 Darnley was killed, and many believed that her close friend James Bothwell was the murderer. Her marriage to James Bothwell some four months later provoked an uprising which forced her to abdicate in favour of her 12 month old son and flee to England for protection.
When Mary I of England died in 1558, Henry II of France proclaimed Mary and his son Queen and King of England, and they adopted the bearing the royal arms of England in their heraldry. Mary maintained the claim to be the rightful Queen of England as Elizabeth, in Catholic eyes, was illegitimate. When she arrived in England she was placed under arrest where she remained for the next 20 years until her death. In 1570 Elizabeth was persuaded to to help Mary regain her throne in Scotland. However, a conditions was that Mary should ratify the Treaty of Edinburgh which stipulated that she should give up the claim on the English throne, this Mary refused to do.
During her imprisonment a number of plots were conceived to depose Elizabeth I and place Mary on the throne. In 1586 Mary was implicated in the Babington Plot to assassinate Elizabeth, she was tried for treason, found guilty and executed on the 8th of February 1587.
- Merciless Parliamentsearch for term
The parliament summoned by the Lords Appellant in 1388, was termed the Merciless Parliament because of the severity of the punishments meted out to supporters of King Richard II. All were sentenced to death for treason, or for having undue influence on the King. Lord Chief Justice Trevelyan and Bember, Mayor of London, were put to death, along with four knights of the Royal Household: Simon Burley, John Beauchamp of Holt, James Baret, and John Salisbury.