Glossary beginning with B
Historical places, events, and people not covered by the glossary of "Religious figures, terms and events".
- Baronsearch for term
The British Peerage has five ranks or grades. Baron is the fifth and lowest of the ranks. Baron is a title that was created and first given to John Beauchamp de Holt in 1387.
- Battle of Bosworthsearch for term
The Battle of Bosworth was fought between the armies of Richard III and Henry Tudor on 22nd August 1485. Although the army of Henry Tudor was out numbered 2:1 the result of the battle saw Richard III killed and Henry crowned Henry VII of England.
- Battle of Crécysearch for term
The Battle of Crécy (1346) was the first major land battle between King Edward III of England and King Philip VI of France. The battle proved the superiority of English longbows, firing from a defensive position, against heavily armoured knights.
The battle started with an advance of some 6,000 Genoese crossbowmen towards the English lines, as they came within range of the longbow the English archers caused carnage amongst them, whilst the crossbow bolts fell short of the English lines, and the Genoese fell back towards their own lines. Rumours spread through the French ranks that the Genoese were cowards, traitors in the pay of the English and the Count of Alençon charged forwards with he second French battalion running the fleeing Genoese down. They then charged towards the English lines and were killed as they came within range of the archers. Fallen horses and riders impeded other riders coming behind. Towards the end of the battle the English cavalry were brought forward and attacked the surviving groups of French knights and infantry.
The battle ended with 2000 French knights and 1000s of French infantry killed, the English dead number 40 knights and fewer infantry and archers. Many of the infantry, who had escaped the battle, were killed as the English came upon isolated groups in the following days.
Philip VI rode back to Amiens where he ordered the killing of the 'Genoese traitors' many of whom were killed in Amiens and surrounding towns before he countermanded his orders.
- Battle of Eveshamsearch for term
The Battle of Evesham was the last major battle in the Second Baron's War between Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, and Prince Edward (later Edward I). The battle took place on 4th August 1265 at Greenhill about a mile from Evesham. The forces of Simon de Montfort were outnumbered by about 3:1 but de Montfort made a cavalry attack on the Edward's forces with the hope of an early break through. Edward's counter attacked surrounded the forces of de Montfort and during the fight de Montfort was killed. The routed army of the baron's were pursued back into Evesham where they were killed in the streets, and in the abbey.
Most of the rebel leaders had been killed at Evesham, and the rebellion was effectively over, however resistance lasted a further two years until Dictum of Kenilworth following the ending of the siege of Kenilworth Castle.
- Battle of Hexhamsearch for term
The Battle of Hexham took place on the 15th of May 1464, between a Lancastrian force of 500 led by Henry Beaufort, 3rd Earl of Somerset, and a Yorkist force of 5000 led by John Neville, Marquis of Montague. After a brief battle the Lancastrian force was routed and Henry Beaufort captured and executed. Following the defeat of Beaufort, John Neville was made Earl of Northumberland by Edward IV.
- Battle of Lewessearch for term
The Battle of Lewes was the first main battle of the Second Baron's War between Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, and Henry III. The battle took place on the 14th May 1264 with the army of Henry III being at least twice that of the barons.
Prince Edward (later Edward I) led a cavalry charge against against a contingent of raw recruits who fled the field and were pursued by Edward's forces. Whilst Edward's cavalry was absent from the battles the rest Simon de Montfort's forces managed to capture Henry III and his brother Richard of Cornwall. Prince Edward was also captured and Henry forced to to sign the Mise of Lewes which was effectively a ratification of the Provisions of Oxford and Prince Edward remained hostage to the barons but escaped after a few month.
- Battle of Northampton 1460search for term
The Battle of Northampton took place on the 10th of July 1460 between a Yorkist army led by the Earl of Warwick, and a Lancastrian army led by the Duke of Buckingham. The conflict which had few casualties, last a about 30 minutes and resulted in a Yorkist victory and the capture of Henry VI.
- Battle of Tewkesburysearch for term
The Battle of Tewkesbury was fought on the 4th of May 1471, between King Edward IV against a Lancastrian army under Duke of Somerset. The result was a decisive win for Edward IV and defeat of the the Duke of Somerset. It resulted in the death of Henry VI son Edward, and the imprisonment of the Queen Consort Marguerite of Anjou, and led to 14 years of peace between the two sides.