Historical events etc
Historical places, events, and people not covered by the glossary of "Religious figures, terms and events".
- Act of Supremacy (1559)search for term
The Act of Supremacy required that anyone taking public office was to swear an oath of allegiance to the monarch as head of the Church and state. Anyone refusing to swear could be charged with treason. The Oath was as follows:
I, A. B., do utterly testify and declare in my conscience that the queen's highness is the only supreme governor of this realm and of all other her highness's dominions and countries, as well in all spiritual or ecclesiastical things or causes as temporal, and that no foreign prince, person, prelate, state, or potentate hath or ought to have any jurisdiction, power, superiority, pre-eminence, or authority, ecclesiastical or spiritual, within this realm; and therefore I do utterly renounce and forsake all foreign jurisdictions, powers, superiorities, and authorities, and do promise that from henceforth I shall bear faith and true allegiance to the queen's highness, her heirs, and lawful successors, and to my power shall assist and defend all jurisdictions, pre-eminences, privileges, and authorities granted or belonging to the queen's highness, her heirs, and successors, or united or annexed to the imperial crown of this realm: so help me God and by the contents of this Book.
The Oath was designed to removal all papal authority from within the clergy or state office holders.
- Act of Uniformity (1559)search for term
This Act was designed to allow both Catholics and Protestants to worship together. It introduced a new Book of Common Prayer, removed abusive passages against the pope from the liturgy, and provided wording that allowed for a both a subjective and objective belief in Transubstantiation during the Communion.
- Akbar the Greatsearch for term
Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (1542 - 1605), the son of Humayun, was the third Mughal Emperor ruling from 1566 to 1605. He is considered the greatest of the Mughal Emperors during his reign he secured the Mughal dynasty in Northern India, and left a legacy of good governance.
- Anne Isearch for term
Queen of England 1702 - 1714.
- Arthur Tudorsearch for term
Arthur Tudor (1486-1502) was the eldest son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. He was married to Catherine of Aragon on the 14th of November 1501. After marrying Arthur and Catherine travelled to Ludlow Castle where he died suddenly on the 2nd April 1502. The cause of death is unknown it has been thought to have been either consumption, diabetes, or more recently hantavirus. Catherine herself was also taken ill with the same symptoms as Arthur but recovered.
Catherine later married Arthur's younger brother Henry. The issue of whether the marriage between Arthur and Catherine was ever consummated was an important consideration when Henry VIII sought an annulment of the marriage .Synonyms: Arthur Prince of Wales, Prince Arthur
- Baronsearch for term
The British Peerage has five ranks or grades. Baron is the fifth and lowest of the ranks. Baron is a title that was created and first given to John Beauchamp de Holt in 1387.
- Battle of Bosworthsearch for term
The Battle of Bosworth was fought between the armies of Richard III and Henry Tudor on 22nd August 1485. Although the army of Henry Tudor was out numbered 2:1 the result of the battle saw Richard III killed and Henry crowned Henry VII of England.
- Battle of Crécysearch for term
The Battle of Crécy (1346) was the first major land battle between King Edward III of England and King Philip VI of France. The battle proved the superiority of English longbows, firing from a defensive position, against heavily armoured knights.
The battle started with an advance of some 6,000 Genoese crossbowmen towards the English lines, as they came within range of the longbow the English archers caused carnage amongst them, whilst the crossbow bolts fell short of the English lines, and the Genoese fell back towards their own lines. Rumours spread through the French ranks that the Genoese were cowards, traitors in the pay of the English and the Count of Alençon charged forwards with he second French battalion running the fleeing Genoese down. They then charged towards the English lines and were killed as they came within range of the archers. Fallen horses and riders impeded other riders coming behind. Towards the end of the battle the English cavalry were brought forward and attacked the surviving groups of French knights and infantry.
The battle ended with 2000 French knights and 1000s of French infantry killed, the English dead number 40 knights and fewer infantry and archers. Many of the infantry, who had escaped the battle, were killed as the English came upon isolated groups in the following days.
Philip VI rode back to Amiens where he ordered the killing of the 'Genoese traitors' many of whom were killed in Amiens and surrounding towns before he countermanded his orders.
- Battle of Eveshamsearch for term
The Battle of Evesham was the last major battle in the Second Baron's War between Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, and Prince Edward (later Edward I). The battle took place on 4th August 1265 at Greenhill about a mile from Evesham. The forces of Simon de Montfort were outnumbered by about 3:1 but de Montfort made a cavalry attack on the Edward's forces with the hope of an early break through. Edward's counter attacked surrounded the forces of de Montfort and during the fight de Montfort was killed. The routed army of the baron's were pursued back into Evesham where they were killed in the streets, and in the abbey.
Most of the rebel leaders had been killed at Evesham, and the rebellion was effectively over, however resistance lasted a further two years until Dictum of Kenilworth following the ending of the siege of Kenilworth Castle.
- Battle of Hexhamsearch for term
The Battle of Hexham took place on the 15th of May 1464, between a Lancastrian force of 500 led by Henry Beaufort, 3rd Earl of Somerset, and a Yorkist force of 5000 led by John Neville, Marquis of Montague. After a brief battle the Lancastrian force was routed and Henry Beaufort captured and executed. Following the defeat of Beaufort, John Neville was made Earl of Northumberland by Edward IV.
- Battle of Lewessearch for term
The Battle of Lewes was the first main battle of the Second Baron's War between Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, and Henry III. The battle took place on the 14th May 1264 with the army of Henry III being at least twice that of the barons.
Prince Edward (later Edward I) led a cavalry charge against against a contingent of raw recruits who fled the field and were pursued by Edward's forces. Whilst Edward's cavalry was absent from the battles the rest Simon de Montfort's forces managed to capture Henry III and his brother Richard of Cornwall. Prince Edward was also captured and Henry forced to to sign the Mise of Lewes which was effectively a ratification of the Provisions of Oxford and Prince Edward remained hostage to the barons but escaped after a few month.
- Battle of Northampton 1460search for term
The Battle of Northampton took place on the 10th of July 1460 between a Yorkist army led by the Earl of Warwick, and a Lancastrian army led by the Duke of Buckingham. The conflict which had few casualties, last a about 30 minutes and resulted in a Yorkist victory and the capture of Henry VI.
- Battle of Tewkesburysearch for term
The Battle of Tewkesbury was fought on the 4th of May 1471, between King Edward IV against a Lancastrian army under Duke of Somerset. The result was a decisive win for Edward IV and defeat of the the Duke of Somerset. It resulted in the death of Henry VI son Edward, and the imprisonment of the Queen Consort Marguerite of Anjou, and led to 14 years of peace between the two sides.
- Cardinal George d'Amboisesearch for term
George d'Amboise (1460-1510) was one of the central figures of the French Renaissance. He was nominated as the bishop of Montauban at the age of fourteen, and took up the position some ten years later. Closely associated with the Duke of Orléans, he became prime minister of France when the Duke became King Louis XII in 1498. In the same year George d'Amboise was made a cardinal by Pope Alexander VI.
- Catherine of Aragonsearch for term
Catherine (1485 - 1536) was the youngest surviving daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. She was betrothed when she was three to Henry VII eldest son Arthur who was two. The pair married in November 1501, but five months later Arthur died suddenly in April 1502 at Ludlow Castle. After Arthur's death negotiations took place to arrange a marriage between Catherine and Arthur's brother Henry. During these negotiations Henry VII started to put up obstacles and delayed payment of a dowry as thought that he could arrange a better match for his son. The young Henry and Catherine, however, grew closer together and Henry married her secretly on the death of his father in 1509.
Catherine was unable to give birth to a son, and by 1525 Henry had become convinced that the failure to produce a son was punishment for having married his brother's wife. Henry started proceedings to obtain a divorce which eventually lead to the break from Rome and the establishment of the Church of England.Synonyms: Katherine of Aragon
- Charles Isearch for term
King of England 1625 - 1649.
- Charles IIsearch for term
King of England 1660 - 1685.
- Charles VI of Francesearch for term
King of France 1380-1422.
- Charles VII of Francesearch for term
King of France 1422 - 1461.
- Charles VIII of Francesearch for term
King of France 1483-1498.
- Charter of Libertiessearch for term
This is a Charter signed by Henry I on acceding to the throne of England, in 1100, where he bound himself to the laws of the land. The Charter of Liberties is the model for the Magna Charta signed by King John in 1215.
- Collar of Essessearch for term
This is a chain of office that has been in almost constant use since the 14th century. It was first used by supporters of John of Gaunt, and was later adopted as the badge for the Lancastrian house during the Wars of the Roses. After the Battle of Bosworth Henry VII increased its length and added a pendant of either a Rose or Portcullis, during the reign of Henry VIII it was presented to ministers and courtiers, there is a portrait by Hans Holbien of Thomas More wearing the chain.
Today it is used as a badge of office by the Lord Chief Justice and the Lord Mayor of London.
- Ealdormansearch for term
An official, appointed by the king in Anglo-Saxon England. He was responsible, along with sheriff, for law, order, and justice in the shire,. He was also responsible for leading the local militia in battle.
- Edward Isearch for term
King of England 1272 - 1307.
- Edward IIsearch for term
King of England 1307 - 1327.
- Edward IIIsearch for term
King of England 1327 - 1377.
- Edward IVsearch for term
King of England 1461 - 1470, and again between 1471 - 1483.
- Edward the Black Princesearch for term
Edward (1330-1376) was the eldest son of Edward III and Philippa of Hainault. He died a year before his father and it was therefore his son Richard II that succeeded to the crown of England. He is famous for the campaigns he waged in France during the Hundred Years War, in particular his actions aged 16, at Crécy, and his victory at Poitier where the French King John II was captured.Synonyms: The Black Prince
- Edward Vsearch for term
King of England 1483 - 1483.
- Edward VIsearch for term
King of England 1547 - 1553.
- Eleanor of Aquitainesearch for term
Eleanor of Aquitaine (1137-1204), was the wife of Louis VII of France and after the marriage was annulled, became the wife of Henry II of England. Two of her sons with Henry inherited the throne of England, Richard I of England in 1189, and his younger brother King John of England in 1199.
- Elizabeth Isearch for term
Queen of England 1558 - 1603.Synonyms: Elizabethan
- Empress Matildasearch for term
Matilda (1102-1167) was the only surviving child of Henry I, her younger brother William having drowned when the White Ship sank in 1120. In 1114, when she was twelve, she married the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. Henry died in 1125 and Matlida returned to England and the the following year married the fourteen year old Geoffrey of Anjou.
Before Henry I died he made his barons promise to support Matilda as Queen of England. However, Henry's nephew Stephen of Blois usurped the throne on Henry's death in 1135. In 1139 Matilda landed in England and with her half-brother Robert 1st Earl of Gloucester attempted to overthrow Stephen, whilst Geoffrey attacked his lands in Normandy.
Stephen captured Matilda at Arundel Castle but allowed her to leave and travel to Bristol where she joinded up with her brother Robert. The conflict between Matilda and Stephen, known as the Anarchy, lasted until the Treaty of Winchester in 1153 when Stephen agreed to recognise Matilda's son Henry as his legitimate heir. When Stephen died the following year Henry became Henry II of England.
- English Council of Statesearch for term
Rump Parliament 1649 - 1653.
- Epiphany Risingsearch for term
In 1399, supporters of Richard II, who had seen their lands put under attainder for complicity in the murder of Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, hatched a plot to restore Richard to throne by assassinating Henry IV and his sons at a Tournament at Windsor castle. The plot was betrayed and Henry raised an army in London. The plotters led by John Montagu, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, John Holland, 1st Earl of Huntingdon , Thomas Holland, 3rd Earl of Kent, and Thomas le Despenser, 4th Baron le Despenser escaped to the west of England. Most were killed whilst trying to capture Cirencester, Thomas le Despenser, 4th Baron le Despenser was captured at Bristol and beheaded.
Following the attempted plot Henry IV seems to have decided that an alive Richard II would always be a danger to him. Richard was reported, on the 17 February 1400, to have died at Pontefract Castle in mysterious circumstances.
- Exarch of Ravennasearch for term
Byzantine governor of Italy based in Ravenna, the capital city of the western Roman Empire. The last Exarchate of Ravenna was killed by the Lombards in 751.
- Favouritesearch for term
The term is applied to someone who in medieval times had a close friendship with a ruler, and who through that friendship rises to high office or power.
One who stands unduly high in the favour of a prince.
- First Baron's warsearch for term
A war from 1215-1217 between the baron's and King John of England, following John's failure to abide with the terms of Magna Charta. John controlled the north and midlands, whilst the barons controlled the south and London. The baron's offered the crown to Prince Louis the son of Philip II of France, who landed an army in May 1216 and was proclaimed king in London but never crowned. When John died at Newark Castle, in October 1216, the crown passed to his nine year old son Henry III. His Regent the 70 year old William Marshal managed to defeat the rebel barons at Lincoln castle in 1217, and then got them to change sides and support the young king rather than Louis.
- Gunpowder Plotsearch for term
A plot in 1605 to blow up King James I of England and Parliament. The principals being Robert Catesby, Guy Fawkes, Thomas Wintour, Thomas Percy, Thomas Bates, Christopher Wright, Robert Wintour, John Grant, John Wright, Robert Keyes, Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby, and Francis Tresham.
- Henry Isearch for term
King of England 1100-1135.Synonyms: Henry I King of England
- Henry IIsearch for term
King of England 1154 - 1189.Synonyms: Henry II of England
- Henry IIIsearch for term
King of England 1216 - 1272.Synonyms: Henry III of England
- Henry IVsearch for term
King of England 1399 - 1413.Synonyms: Henry Bollingbroke, King Henry IV of England
- Henry Vsearch for term
King of England 1413 - 1422.Synonyms: Henry V of England, Prince Hal
- Henry VIsearch for term
King of England 1422 - 1461, and again between 1470 - 1471.Synonyms: Henry VI of England
- Henry VIIsearch for term
King of England 1485 - 1509.Synonyms: Henry Tudor, Henry VII of England
- Henry VIIIsearch for term
King of England 1509 - 1547.Synonyms: Henry VIII of England
- Holy Roman Emperor Henry Vsearch for term
Henry (1086-1125) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1111 until 1125. His reign coincided with the dispute between the Papacy and the Emperor as to who had the right to appoint bishops and abbots.
- Holy Roman Emperor Henry VIsearch for term
Henry VI (1165-1197) was crowned the Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Celestine III in April 1191. In 1193 he was excommunicated by Pope Celestine III because of his refusal to release the crusader Richard I of England, whom he held for ransom, the money from which he need to support an army to conquer southern Italy.
Henry died of malaria in Messina whilst preparing for a Crusade.
- Holy Roman Emperor Otto IVsearch for term
Otto IV (1175-1218) was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III on October 4th 1209. He was excommunicated by Innocent III in the following year when he failed to keep his word regarding territorial claims to Sicily.
Otto was the son of Matilda the daughter of Henry II, and was brought up in the courts of his uncles King Richard I of England and King John of England, and was made Duke of York in 1190. In alliance with his uncle John he invaded France in 1212 but was defeated by Philip II of France at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214. He was deposed in 1215 and died three years later at Harzburg Castle on the 19th of May 1218.
- Holy Roman Empiresearch for term
Along with the Papacy, one of the two important institution of Medieval Europe. The Empire was mostly situated in Central Europe, comprising of Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Holland, Belgium Eastern France and Switzerland. It was ruled by Frankish and the German kings from 800AD until it was abolished in 1803.
The Emperor had the role of protecting the Pope and the Roman Catholic church, but frequently the two were in conflict with each other, particularly during the 11th to 14th centuries. However, the two often had a close relationship and worked together for political goals.
The combination of Reformation and Thirty Years War weakened the institution until it became no more than a loose confederation of states and principalities.Synonyms: Holy Roman Emperor
- Hugh Despenser the Youngersearch for term
Hugh Despenser (1286-1326) rose to become the favourite of Edward II of England. In 1306 he married Eleanor de Clare the grand-daughter of Edward I and niece of Edward II. When Eleanor's brother was killed at the Battle of Bannockburn, she and her sisters became heiresses to the lands of the earl of Gloucester. Using Eleanor's royal connections and wealth Hugh gained more and more influence in the court of Edward II.
His manoeuvrings and avarice caused resentment amongst the aristocracy who saw him as a parvenu. His rise to become royal chamberlain in 1318 gave him control over the allowance of Edward II wife, Queen Isabelle of France, who complained that she was treated as a maidservant, and who developed a special hatred for him.
It has been speculated that his relationship with Edward was sexual, although there is no evidence that Edward was homosexual. In 1321 the barons forced Edward to banish both Hugh and his father, but afterwards the barons disagreed amongst themselves and Edward was able to defeat and execute their main opponent the Earl of Lancaster, and they returned to England.
When Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer landed with a small army in 1326 very few of the barons were willing to come to the aid of Edward and the Despensers. Hugh was found guilty of Treason and Executed in the Hereford Market Place with Isabella looking on.
- Hugh IX de Lusignansearch for term
Hugh of Lusignan (c1163 -1219) became seigneur of Lusignan in 1172, and count of La Marche in 1203. He was betrothed to Isabella of Angoulême, but King John of England married her before she reached the age of consent. He died whilst on the 5th Crusade at Damietta, in Egypt, on 5 November 1219. Isabella, on returning to France, married his son Hugh X of Lusignan in 1220.
- Humayunsearch for term
Humayun (1508 - 1556), was the second of the Mughal Emperors and ruled for 10 years, from 1530 -1540, before being ousted by the Afghan leader Sher Khan. He then spent a number of years in the Sind dessert, where Akbar was born, and then in Iran, before returning to seize Qandahar and Kabul from his brothers.
In 1554 he managed to regain the Mughal throne due to divisions between members of Sher Khan's family. He died in January 1556 having tripped on his robe and hitting his head on some stone steps.
- Jack Cade Rebellionsearch for term
The Jack Cade Rebellion, in the summer of 1450, was a peasants revolt in Kent and Sussex against the ruile of Henry VI of England. The rebels defeated a Royalist army near Sevenoakes and went on to enter London, where they had support, and narrowly missed capturing the Tower of London.
- Jahangirsearch for term
- James Isearch for term
King of England 1603 - 1625.
- James IIsearch for term
King of England 1685 - 1688.
- Jharokha-Darsanasearch for term
The literal meaning is that of a 'window audience', where the Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great would present himself at a window (Jharokha) in order to hear any grievances that the people might have. It functioned as a effective means of public dialogue between the Emperor and the public, and Akbar might spend up to 4 hour in such public person to person discussions.
- John of Englandsearch for term
King of England 1199 - 1216.
- King Stephensearch for term
King of England 1135 - 1341.Synonyms: Stephen of Blois
- Letters patentsearch for term
Grants of official positions, or land, or commissions are made by the Crown as letters patent (i.e. open letters) issued under the Great Seal. They are issued under the prerogative powers of the head of state and are a form of legislation without the consent of the parliament.
- Lord Chancellorsearch for term
The Lord Chancellor is one of the most ancient offices of state, that dates back many centuries. The Lord Chancellor acted as Speaker of the House of Lords and sat on the Woolsack. They were also head of the judiciary and the senior judge of the House of Lords in its judicial capacity.
- Lord Chief Justicesearch for term
Lord Chief Justice is the name given to the judge who presides over the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court. Since the passing of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 the Lord Chief Justice is now Head of the Judiciary of England and Wales, a role previously performed by the Lord Chancellor. In addition, he is President of the Courts of England and Wales and responsible for representing the views of the judiciary to Parliament and the Government.
- Lords Appellantsearch for term
In 1386 a group of five noble brought an appeal of treason against five of Richard II favourites. The five lords were Richard's uncle, Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby, and Thomas de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk. These five had earlier formed a Commission under the leadership of the Duke of Gloucester to manage the royal finances.
In 1387 Richard declared the five lords traitors, and Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford raised an army to defend him. However, the five lords raised an army of their own, and defeated de Vere in a battle outside Oxford in December 1387. They then marched on London and took charge of Richard. In February 1388 parliament was called to hear the charges against Richard's councillors. The parliament which sat until June became known as the Merciless Parliament as it convicted and condemned a number of Richard's closest friends and advisors.
- Lords ordainerssearch for term
When Edward II became king he started to appoint to high office a number of those nobles that had been the fiecest opponents of his father. This caused resentment amongst those that had previously served father. In 1309 his staunchest critic became Thomas earl of Lancaster, and by 1311 following defeats in war with Scotland and increasing expenditure, Thomas, along with the earls of Warwick, Hereford, and Pembroke accused Edward of wasting his inheritance and of ruining the kingdom.
Edward was forced to appoint a committee of 21 lords who were to be in charge of the reform of the royal household. This committee became known as the Lords ordainers, due to the 41 ordinances that they produced which give the barons control of government.
Edward was required to obtain consent before leaving the country, his favourite Piers Gaveston was banished, his Italian bankers expelled, parliament was to meet once a year, and central and local officials were to be held responsible to the barons.
The ordinances were revoked by the Statute of York in 1322 following the execution of Thomas earl of Lancaster.
- Louis II of Chalonsearch for term
Louis II of Chalon-Arlay (1390–1463). He was first married to Marie de la Trémouille, but eloped with a Spanish woman, Jeanne de Perillos, from the court of the Duchess of Burgandy in 1406. The Duke of Burgundy John of Valois sued in court for the return of Jeanne, and all of Louis property in the region was confiscated in 1407. This lead to several years of war between the two parties.
- Louis IX of Francesearch for term
King of France 1226-1270.
- Louis VIII of Francesearch for term
King of France from 1223 - 1226. During the First Baron's War he was invited by the English baron to become King of England. In May of that year he landed an army in Kent and was proclaimed king in London, but never crowned. By the time of King John of England's death, the combined forces of Louis and the barons control half of England. However, William Marshal the protector for John's son Henry III manages to get the barons to change sides and expel Louis.
- Louis XI of Francesearch for term
King of France 1461-1483.
- Louis XIV of Francesearch for term
King of France from 1643 - 1715.Synonyms: Louis XIV
- Louis XVsearch for term
King of France from 1715 - 1774.
- Louis XVIsearch for term
King of France from 1774 - 1791.
- Magnatesearch for term
A powerful member of the Aristocracy or Church. A person of great wealth and feudal power, in some cases rivalling that of the king.
- Marguerite of Anjousearch for term
Queen Consort of Henry VI of England from 1445 - 1461, and then again after the restoration of Henry VI from 1470-1471. Henry VI had frequent bouts of insanity during which Marguerite ruled England, with Richard of York as Regent. Her animosity toward Richard of York and support for the Duke of Somerset was a major factor in igniting the Wars of the Roses.
After the Lancastrians were defeated at the Battle of Towton, and Henry VI deposed by Edward IV of England, Marguerite went into exile in Scotland. In 1470 she returned and in an alliance with Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick restored Henry VI to the throne. However, the following year the Lancastrian forces were defeated at the Battle of Tewkesbury, Marguerite was captured, her son Edward killed, and Henry later murdered. She was ransomed in 1476 by Louis XI of France, and died at Angers in 1482.
- Mary Isearch for term
Queen of England 1553 - 1558.Synonyms: 'bloody' Mary, Mary Tudor
- Mary IIsearch for term
Queen regnant of England 1689 - 1694.
- Mary, Queen of Scotssearch for term
Mary was the only surviving child of James V of Scotland. She was brought up in France and married Francis II of France, becoming Queen of France when he succeeded to the throne in 1559. When Francis died in 1560 she returned to Scotland, and married her cousin Lord Darnley in 1565, which was unhappy. In 1567 Darnley was killed, and many believed that her close friend James Bothwell was the murderer. Her marriage to James Bothwell some four months later provoked an uprising which forced her to abdicate in favour of her 12 month old son and flee to England for protection.
When Mary I of England died in 1558, Henry II of France proclaimed Mary and his son Queen and King of England, and they adopted the bearing the royal arms of England in their heraldry. Mary maintained the claim to be the rightful Queen of England as Elizabeth, in Catholic eyes, was illegitimate. When she arrived in England she was placed under arrest where she remained for the next 20 years until her death. In 1570 Elizabeth was persuaded to to help Mary regain her throne in Scotland. However, a conditions was that Mary should ratify the Treaty of Edinburgh which stipulated that she should give up the claim on the English throne, this Mary refused to do.
During her imprisonment a number of plots were conceived to depose Elizabeth I and place Mary on the throne. In 1586 Mary was implicated in the Babington Plot to assassinate Elizabeth, she was tried for treason, found guilty and executed on the 8th of February 1587.
- Merciless Parliamentsearch for term
The parliament summoned by the Lords Appellant in 1388, was termed the Merciless Parliament because of the severity of the punishments meted out to supporters of King Richard II. All were sentenced to death for treason, or for having undue influence on the King. Lord Chief Justice Trevelyan and Bember, Mayor of London, were put to death, along with four knights of the Royal Household: Simon Burley, John Beauchamp of Holt, James Baret, and John Salisbury.
- Oliver Cromwellsearch for term
1st Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland 1653 - 1658.
- Philip II of Francesearch for term
King of France 1180-1223.
- Philip III of Francesearch for term
King of France 1270-1285
- Philip IV of Francesearch for term
King of France (1285-1314), and father of Isabella wife of Edward II.
- Philip VI of Francesearch for term
King of France 1328 - 1350.
- Piers Gavestonsearch for term
Piers was the son of a Gascony knight, Arnaud de Gabaston a faithful servant of Edward I, who fought for him in Wales, and becoming a hostage to Alfonso III of Aragon and later to Philip IV of France. Like his father Piers served Edward I becoming a member of the household of the prince of Wales (the later Edward III). In this role he became a close friend of Edward and when Edward became king the other Barons became increasingly hostile to the amount of land and influence that Edward III gave to his favourite. This animosity led to Piers being banished on three occasions, the last time by the Lords Ordainers as a traitor having an evil influence over the king. However, Edward brought Piers back and reinstated him to his lands in January 1312. The leading barons besieged Piers at Scarborough Castle where he surrender to custody of the earl of Pembroke. On his journey south he was captured by the earl of Warwick and taken to Warwick castle. Whilst there he was tried and condemned at the behest of the earl of Lancaster, and executed at Blacklow Hill.
- Provisions of Oxfordsearch for term
1258 reforms of the English government issued by a committee of 24 appointed by the Oxford parliament. Twelve members were selected by the King, and twelve by the barons. Effectively the King was forced to recognized the rights of parliament. Executive power was held by the King and a council of 15, and parliament was to meet three times a year.
The provisions were annulled by the dictum of Kenilworth (1266) following the end of the Second Baron's War.
- Richard Cromwellsearch for term
2nd Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland 1658 - 1659.
- Richard Isearch for term
King of England 1189 - 1199.Synonyms: Richard Cœur de Lion, Richard I of England, Richard the Lionheart
- Richard IIsearch for term
King of England 1377 - 1399. In September 1399 he was deposed by Henry IV and imprisoned first in the Tower of London and then at Pontefract Castle. After the attempt to Epiphany Rising in January 1400 he was declared to have died at Pontefract on the 14th of February 1400. He is buried at Kings Langley in Hertfordshire.Synonyms: Richard II King of England
- Richard IIIsearch for term
King of England 1483 - 1485.
- Richard Mayewsearch for term
Born in 1439 Richard Mayew was a fellow of New College Oxford, and the second president of Magdalen College Oxford occupying the position from 1480-1507. As president he commissioned, in 1492, the building of one of Oxford's most famous landmarks, the 144ft bell tower of the college. During his time at Magdalen College he is was twice visited by Henry VII, and was one of the Ambassadors Henry sent to escort Catherine of Aragon from Spain back to England for her marriage to Henry's eldest son Arthur Tudor.Synonyms: Bishop Richard Mayew
- Robert Grossetestesearch for term
Robert Grosseteste (1175-1253), Bishop of Lincoln 1235-1253. Opposed the appointment of foreign priests to English There's a rectory with pointed gables and strange odd chimneys that never smokes,
For the Rector don't live on his living like other Christian sort of folks; ">There's a rectory with pointed gables and strange odd chimneys that never smokes,
For the Rector don't live on his living like other Christian sort of folks; ">church livings. His commentaries on the works of Aristotle espoused a framework for the scientific method, and he is considered a key figure in the history of western science. His work on optics was later developed by Roger Bacon.
- Second Baron's Warsearch for term
The Second Barons' War (1264-1267) was a rebellion of barons led by Simon de Montfort against Henry III. The cause of conflict was Henry's demands for money for the ninth crusade, to fight campaigns in Wales and France, and money to support his brother's claims to the crown of Sicily. For support the barons demanded political reforms and drew up the Provisions of Oxford, which Henry accepted but later repudiated and ask Louis IX of France to adjudicated. Louis found in Henry's favour and Henry obtained a papal bull in 1261 exempting him from his oath.
The first battle at Lewes was a victory for the barons, which saw Henry defeated and captured, and Prince Edward held hostage. However, the barons quarrelled, Gilbert earl of Gloucester and Roger Mortimer joined the king's side, and Prince Edward escaped. The Battle of Evesham resulted in a defeat for the barons, and de Montfort was killed. However, resistance continued until 1267. Later many of the reforms were granted by Edward I.
- Sher Shah Surisearch for term
Sher Shah Suri (1486 - 1545), "The Lion King", also known as Sher Khan, was the Suri Dynasty. The son of a petty Afghan army chieftain, he left home at an early age and was educated in Jaunpur. Later he went to Bihar where he joined the army of the first Mughal Emperor Babur as a private, rising to become commander of the Mughal Army.
In 1537 he rebelled against Babur's son Humayun, overran Bengal and established a Sur Empire from 1540 until his death in 1545. Humayun eventually managed to re-establish Mughal rule in 1554.Synonyms: Sher Khan
- Stephen Gardinersearch for term
Stephen Gardiner (1483-1555) was secretary to Cardinal Wolsey, Henry VIII chief minister. In this role he was sent in 1528/9 as an ambassador to Pope Clement VII, in Rome, to arrange the divorce of Henry from Catherine of Aragon. Although the mission was unsuccessful he was appointed Henry's principle secretary and bishop of Winchester, which was the richest bishopric in England. He was, however, passed over for the position of Archbishop of Canterbury, in favour of Thomas Cranmer, and was later replaced as Henry's secretary by Thomas Cromwell.
A conservative reformer he promoted the Act of Six Articles which required abide by the main tenets of Roman Catholic doctrine (Henry wanted to be seen as more Catholic than the Pope), and had a hand in the downfall of Thomas Cromwell. However, after Henry died the new regime were more radically Protestant and Gardiner was was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1548 for refusing to carry out the injunctions of Thomas Cranmer.
- Suzerainsearch for term
A feudal lord to whom fealty was due.
Suzerainty is where a overlord allows the subordinate a degree of autonomy to control its foreign relationships.Synonyms: Suzerainty
- Thegnsearch for term
A member of the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy who ranked below that of an ealdorman, and higher than that of a ceorl. The title was some what similar to that of a knight or baron. His was a hereditary position, and he held land either from the king or some other noble. However, one might obtain thegn hood by performing some service or function. Leading churchmen would become thegns. Only the king had jurisdiction over the thegns.
- Treaty of Montreuilsearch for term
Agreed between Philip IV of France and Edward I of England at Montreuil-sur-Mer this treaty ended the conflict in Flanders and Gascony between the two kingdoms. Under the treaty Edward was to marry Philip's sister Margaret, and Edward's son (the later Edwrad II) was to marry Philip's daughter Isabella. Edward and Margaret were married on the 10th of September 1299, but Edward's younger son and Isabella did not marry until 1308.
- Treaty of Troyessearch for term
Agreement between Henry V of England and Charles VI of France that was meant to settle the Hundred Years War between France and England. In the treaty Henry would marry Charles' daughter Catherine and become Charles' successor to the throne of France. Although ratified by the Estates-General, both Henry and Charles died within two years, and the agreement was disputed by Charles' son.
- Wallon de Sartonsearch for term
Canon of Picquigny and a participant in the 4th Crusade. He was at the sacking of Constantinople, on the 12th of April, 1204, and whilst in Constantinople he found the heads of both John the Baptist and St George, what happened to the head of St George is unknown but the head of John the Baptist was brought to Amiens Cathedral on the 17th of December, 1206.
- Wars of Religionsearch for term
The French wars of religion were fought between Catholics and Protestants between 1562 and 1598. It incorporated the factional disputes between the French aristocracy most notable the House of Bourbon and the House of Guise.
- Wars of the Rosessearch for term
A series of battles for the English crown between the two branches of the two Plantagenet Houses of York and Lancaster. These wars lasted from 1455 to 1487, with the first clash was at the Battle of St Albans between Richard of York and Henry VI, where Henry was defeated and spirited away to Scotland. The last major action was the Battle of Bosworth where Henry Tudor defeated Richard III.
- William I Duke of Normandysearch for term
William was the 2nd Duke of Normandy (927-942) inheriting from his father the Viking Rollo.
- William I of Englandsearch for term
King of England 1066 - 1087.Synonyms: William I, William the Conqueror
- William IIsearch for term
King of England 1087-1100.Synonyms: William II King of England
- William IIIsearch for term
King of England 1689 - 1702.
- Witansearch for term
An Anglo-Saxon assembly of the ealdormen, thegns, and leading churchmen that acted in a concilor capacity. At certain times such as the re-acceptance of Æthelred as king in 1014, the witan acted in place for the English nation.